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Geodynamics, rifting, stratiform and stratabound mineral deposits
- Authors: Dingemans, D.R.W.
- Date: 1981 , 2013-03-19
- Subjects: Ore deposits , Geodynamics , Mines and mineral resources , Rifts (Geology)
- Language: English
- Type: Thesis , Masters , MSc
- Identifier: vital:5012 , http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1006107 , Ore deposits , Geodynamics , Mines and mineral resources , Rifts (Geology)
- Description: Stratiform and stratabound ore deposits commonly show a direct relationship with rifts. This association is studied by developing a geodynamic model of mantle processes and crustal responses. The geodynamics of the earth can be modelled by the process of mantle advection, which involves the episodic generation and segregation of low density mantle diapirs and their rise and subsequent interaction with the crust. The theory of mantle advection explains the genetic association between rifting, magmatism, basin development and subsequent orogeny and metamorphism. Global evolution has passed through a number of major stages of non-uniformitarian development in which each cycle was characterized by fairly uniform behaviour terminated by intense geodynamic upheaval. The relationship between geological evolution and mantle advection is examined by reviewing the major characteristics of each of the cycles, which correspond to the Archean, Early Proterozoic, Mid Proterozoic, Late Proterozoic-Palaeo2oic, and Mesozoic - Cainozoic eras. Although mentle advection has controlled crustal processes throughout time, the decrease in the thermal energy of the earth has caused >the major evolutionary changes in response to thickening and a greater rigidity of the sialic crust. Rifts are penetrative taphrogenic faults in the earths crust which act as major conduits for the transfer of magmas, from the mantle and lower crustal levels, to the upper crust and the surface. Rifts are also permeable zones for the migration of metalliferous brines, generated by magmatic differentiation. These metalliferous brines would either be exhaled at surface to form stratiform volcanogenic and volcanosedimentary ore deposits , or would interact with preferential host horizons to form stratabound ore deposits . The associat ion between rifting and stratiform and stratabound ore deposits is illustrated by examining :he tectonic setting, and st ratigraphic relationships of typical ore deposit types .
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- Date Issued: 1981
The geology and metallogeny of the Otavi mountain land, Damara orogen, SWA/Namibia, with particular reference to the Berg Aukas Zn-Pb-V deposit a model of ore genesis
- Authors: Misiewicz, Julian Edward
- Date: 1988
- Subjects: Geology -- Namibia -- Damaraland , Ore deposits -- Namibia , Orogeny , Metallogeny , Geodynamics
- Language: English
- Type: Thesis , Masters , MSc
- Identifier: vital:4959 , http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1005571 , Geology -- Namibia -- Damaraland , Ore deposits -- Namibia , Orogeny , Metallogeny , Geodynamics
- Description: The Olavi Mountain Land is a 10 000 km2 mineral province located at the eastern extremity of the exposed Northern Platform of the Damara Pan African orogenic belt. The Olavi Mountain Land is tbe most important mineral province on the Northern Platform. Exploitation of tbe Cu-Pb-Zn-V province has been on-going since the possession of the territory by the German colonial authority in 1890. Production has been mostly from four mines which in order of importance are Tsumeb, Kombat, Berg Aukas and Abeoab. A second mineral province on the Northern Platform located in the west is centred on Sesfontein where as yet only insignificant mineralization has been noted. Besides these localities, the Northern Platform is conspicuously devoid of notable mineralization. The aim of this thesis has been to document tbe Berg Aukas deposit, an important end-member type of mineralization in the Otavi Mountain Land. The basic premise bas been to show tbat the derivation and localization of the mineralization is a consequence of two broad controls which can be simply summarised as features of the basement and of the carbonate sequences. The geodynamic evolution of the Damara Belt commenced with intra-continental rifting approximately 900 Ma ago. Rift grabens trending north-east were filled by the Nosib Group which comprises mostly clastic lithologies but also some volcanics. The earliest and largest rift is referred to as the Northern Rift. Separation of the Congo, Kalahari, and proto-South American cratons resulted in rifting and rapid downwarping so that an encroaching sea and an Olavi Group carbonate shelf developed along the northern margin of the Northern Rift. Significantly, the carbonates only covered the Northern Rift in the area of the Otavi Mountain Land where a basinal dome, referred to as the Grootfontein Basement High, marked the basin edge. In the west, the carbonates covered the less important Sesfonfein Rift, and it is only in these two areas where Nosib sequences underlie the carbonate platform. Carbonate sedimentation was interrupted by a major period of crustal readjustment and the deposition of an extensive mixtite throughout the geosynclinal Swakop Trough and Northern Platform. This is referred to as the Chuos Formation and subdivides the Olavi Group into a lower Abenab and an upper Tsumeb Subgroup. Reversal of spreading led to plate collision and subduction of tbe Kalahari craton beneath the Congo craton. It was accompanied by orogenesis which resulted in F1 folding of the Northern Platform into a series of north-easterly trending intermontane basins into which a molasse sequence known as the Mulden Group was unconformably deposited. Following this major north-south deformation mild east-west compression initiated F2 folding and the formation of doubly plunging synclines. The Berg Aukas Syncline represents a primary depositional basin which was subsequently folded. The original basin was formed by late Nosib rifting wben spreading caused the Swakop geosynclinal Trough to form. Carbonates of the basal Berg Aukas Formation were deposited in a lagoonal setting typified by reef and fore-reef facies witb peri-platform conditions. Rapid subsidence caused these sediments to be overlain by deep water carbonates of the Gauss Formation. Two styles of mineralization known as the Tsumeb-type and Berg Aukas-type are stratigraphically, isotopically, and mineralogically distinct. The Tsumeb-type is a cupriferous variety of discordant bodies confined to the upper sequences beneath the Mulden unconformity. The Berg Aukas-type is a Zn-Pb variety confined to tbe basal unconformity. The Berg Aukas deposit comprises three ore bodies known as the Northern Ore Horizon, the Central Ore Body, and the Hanging Wall Ore Body. Sphalerite and galena constitute the bypogene ore. Willemite, smithsonite, cerussite, and descloizite are important supergene ores. A review of genetic models concludes that a magmatic origin initially proposed for tbe Tsumeb deposit is entirely rejected and a basin dewatering model in line with Mississippi Valley-type deposits is proposed. The syntectonic nature of mineralization at Berg Aukas and elsewhere in the Otavi Mountain Land indicates that orogenesis encouraged dewatering and leaching of metals from a broad mineralizing front along the margin of the Swakop Trough. These were transported by acidic saline brines which migrated along the clastic aquifers and structural conduits provided by the Northern Rift. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that the hydrothermal fluids at Berg Aukas were very saline (23% TDS) and were transported at temperatures ranging between 92° to 210°C. Hydrothermal fluids which mineralized Berg AukaS-type deposits migrated along the basal unconformity towards the basement high and were responsible for hydrothermally altering the basement granites and gabbros and the Nosib clastic rocks. Tsumeb-type deposits resulted by migration of fluids through the carbonate pile and along north-easterly trending basement geofractures. As a consequence of variation in transport, the Berg Aukas-type and Tsumeb-type fluids leached different sources and therefore derived mineralogically and isotopically seperable characteristics. The localization of the Berg Aukas ores was controlled by the carbonate stratigraphy and structure. Hydrothermal karsting and ore deposition took place on the contact between Massive Grey and Light Grey Dolostones which represents a permeability contrast. The movement of the hydrothermal fluids was controlled by north-south trending vertical fractures caused by F2 folding which resulted in a peric1inal structure. Hydrothermal karsting was accompanied by ca1citic, dolomitic and silicic alteration. The heated acidic fluids initiated solution collapse and a variety of breccia types. Supergene processes resulted in oxidation and upgrading of the ore. Vanadium derived indirectly from gabbros in the basement complex were transported as calcium metavanadate complexes and deposited on contact with the oxidizing base metal sulphides.
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- Date Issued: 1988
The tectono-metallogenesis during the irumide and pan-African events in South West Africa/Namibia
- Authors: Tregoning, Trevor Denzil
- Date: 1987 , 2013-03-05
- Subjects: Orogeny -- Namibia , Ore deposits -- Namibia , Mines and mineral resources -- Namibia , Geodynamics , Rifts (Geology) -- Namibia
- Language: English
- Type: Thesis , Masters , MSc
- Identifier: vital:4922 , http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1004490 , Orogeny -- Namibia , Ore deposits -- Namibia , Mines and mineral resources -- Namibia , Geodynamics , Rifts (Geology) -- Namibia
- Description: A large portion of South west Africa/Namibia is underlain by 2 great orogens. They are the Irumide (Sinclair/Rehoboth) and Damara Orogenies. The L-shaped Irumide Province forms part of a belt which extends over the subcontinent from Namaqualand to as far as Zambia. The volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Irumide are believed to have formed in intracratonic rifts and pull-apart basins during the period 1400 to 900 Ma. The evolution of the NW trending Sinclair Group proceeded by means of 3 major cycles each beginning with the emplacement of basic to intermediate magmas followed by felsic ones. The cycle ended off with subsidence, deposition of immature clastic debris and final tilting of the volcano-clastic sequence. It was suggested that the extensive calc-alkaline lavas present, developed within a magmatic arc above a subduction zone, but this proposal has not been generally accepted. The NE trending Klein Aub-Witvlei Basins consist essentially of red bed alluvial fans and lacustrine sediments with minor volcanics near the base. The red beds and aeolian sediments were deposited in an arid climatic condition. The regional greenschist facies metamorphism and deformation is attributed to a major tectono-thermal event at 1100 Ma. The Damara Orogen (900 - 550 Ma) forms part of the Pan-African mobile belt system of global proportions. The NE trending intracontinental branch (aulacogen) and 2 coastal branches constitute a triple junction with its focal point near Swakopmund. The NE extension of the intracontinental belt has been linked with the Lufilian Arc hosting the renown Zambian Copper Belt deposits. In South West Africa/Namibia this belt hosts many different mineral occurrences which can be grouped into rift and collision related deposits. The tectonic history of the Damara Orogen supports a geodynamic-evolution-with-time hypothesis and represents a transitional phase in which limited Wilson Cycle Tectonics was active. The Theory of Mantle Advection is invoked to explain rifting, thinning and subsidence. Extensive ensialic rifting resulted in a relatively stable Northern Carbonate Platform and several deep troughs hosting turbiditic sequences. Crustal rupture in the Khomas Trough allowed for the emplacement of ocean floor tholeiites known as the Matchless Amphibolite Belt. Subsequent ocean closure and collision resulted in deformation, metamorphism and generation of predominantly S-type granites. The southern continental plate was partially overridden by the northern plate during final collision at 550 Ma. These low angle thrust faults allowed for the emplacement of the Naukluft Nappe Complex on top of younger Nama sediments. The break up of Gondwanaland during the Mesozoic with the splitting of the Atlantic Ocean was responsible for the intrusion of anorogenic alkaline ring complexes along the extension of the NE trending transform faults within the intracontinental branch of the Damara Orogen. A close relationship between the tectonic setting and mineral deposits has been recognized in both the Irumide and Damara Orogenies. In the Irumide, stratiform syngenetic copper deposits are hosted by alluvial fan, playa and lacustrine sediments. The uninterrupted sedimentation from the Irumide to Damara Orogen resulted in similar stratiform copper deposits during the early stages of rifting. In the Damara Orogen the rifting (extensional) phase is characterized by 4 main mineralizing systems: diagenetic/syngenetic (Kupferschiefer-type), epigenetic/hydrothermal Cu-Pb-Zn (Mississippi Valley-type), volcanogenic cupriferous pyrite (Besshi-type) and volcano-exhalative Pb-Zn (Red Sea-type). The collision (compressional) phase was accompanied by 4 main mineralizing processes: epigenetic/hydrothermal Cu-Pb-Zn, hydrotheral/metasomatic Sn-W-rare earth, metamorphogenic Au and U-bearing anatectic melts. The key to the selection of viable exploration targets lies in the understanding of the field evidence and the geodynamics modelling to explain the evolution of the orogen and its associated mineral deposits.
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- Date Issued: 1987