${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Development of a nystatin-loaded micellar system for oral mucoadhesion Wed 12 May 2021 16:46:24 SAST ]]> Incidence of bacterial infections and colonisation in patients admitted to a tuberculosis hospital Wed 12 May 2021 16:12:20 SAST ]]> Immunological and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative diarrhoea patients in the Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: a pilot study 0.05). In HIV-negative diarrhoea patients, prevalence was highest in the 18-30 (mean age 23.2 yr) (87.5 percent) and least (35.7 percent) in those aged 83-95 (mean age 88.8 yr) (P > 0.05). Cryptosporidium antigen was higher in females than in males. Of 115 females (mean age 46.7yr) who participated in the study, antigen was detected in 90 (78.2 percent) against 32 (71.1 percent) of 45 males (mean age 42.6yr). None of the 20 apparently healthy control subjects was found to be infected with Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium was detected in 27 HIV-positive and 97 HIV-negative diarrhoea patients by any one of the techniques. Antigen detection by ELISA 14 showed the highest positivity 96 (76.8 percent) in HIV- negative and 26 (74.3 percent) in HIV- positive diarrhoea patients. PCR detected eighty-nine (71.2 percent) cases in HIV-negative and 23 (65.7 percent) in HIV-positive patients with diarrhoea. Only 13 (37.1 percent) HIV-positive and 34 (27.2 percent) HIV-negative diarrhoea patients were found positive for Cryptosporidium by modified ZN. No significant difference was observed in sensitivity of antigen detection by ELISA and PCR (96.9 percent) in HIV-negative diarrhoea patients, respectively. Specificity of the staining technique was 88.9 percent in HIV-positive and 96.6 percent in HIV-negative diarrhoea patients. No significant difference was found in specificity of antigen detection by ELISA and PCR in HIV-positive and HIV-negative diarrhoea patients, respectively. Positive predictive value of ZN staining in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative diarrhoea patients (92.3 and 96.9 percent) was statistically higher than ELISA and PCR. No significant difference was observed in negative predictive value of ZN technique for detection of Cryptosporidium between HIV-positive and HIV- negative diarrhoea patients. Differences found in prevalence rates due to water source, suggest that the high infection rates of specific groups are associated with their exposure to the contaminated water supply. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium infection is highly prevalent in adult faecal specimens in the Nkonkobe Municipality, an indication of active infection that is likely to emerge as major human pathogen in this location due to socioeconomic changes which favour transmission. However, sequencing analysis is required to differentiate between Cryptosporidium genotypes in the various outbreaks]]> Thu 13 May 2021 03:33:53 SAST ]]>